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Notes on the Collection of Transfers

W. J. Sidis




         97. The Ham TypeThis is a type of transfer already quite fully considered in Section 59. It was used in the case of a few forms issued by the Washington (D. C.) Railway and Electric Company, in particular, the bus forms, the inter-company form, and the forms issued on the Columbia line. This type of transfer, however, is no longer in use on that system, having been replaced by the use of the Pope P. M. coupon.

        A peculiarity of this type is that it is never issued complete, but always with only one of the two time coupons attached, whichever coupon is attached indicates the half-day. The hour and minute (quarter-hour intervals) are indicated by punching on a regular tabular form occupying the entire coupon left attached, there being such a tabular form on each attached coupon. The A. M. coupon is on the left, and the P. M. coupon on the right, and the transfer is indented where the coupons are attached. The date of the patent is June 9, 1903. This type is now apparently obsolete, but many types in use seem to have developed from it.

        98. The Pope TypesIt is probably not fair to call the Pope patent a "type"; it is rather a device. It may be said to be the result of leaving out the A. M. coupon from the Ham patent type. A few minor changes, such as placing the P. M. coupon on the left end, attaching that end to a pad (for Ham transfers do not come on pads), and removing- the hour and minute punch spaces from the coupon, and we have, essentially, the Pope P. M. coupon. The Pope P. M. time limit amounts to putting the contents of the A. M. coupon on the main body of the transfer, and leaving the P. M. coupon attached. The Pope time-limit coupon is not at the end attached to the pad, and hours and minutes are indicated independently. Samples of these coupons are shown in Section 59. The Pope patent is dated November 21, 1905.

        99. The Smith TypeThis is another patent form arranged like the Ham type. The original Smith forms are exactly like Ham forms, but the coupons indicate conditions of place instead of time. In the original Smith type, each coupon, as well as the main body of the transfer, contains a list of receiving conditions where tJ1at coupon may be used for fare; the issuing unit consists of the issuing route with or without the issuing direction, and is designated by name on the top line of the main body of the transfer; the issuing route is designated by number in a box in a bottom corner of each of the attached coupons, the rest of the bottom of each coupon being taken up by the complete date surcharge, which also appears on the main body near the top in a specially reserved space. There are two different sets of hour punch spaces which may be surcharged on any form, at the bottom of the main body: the A. M. spaces, with the numbers 5 to 12 in light boxes, under the letters A. M., followed by the numbers 1, 2, 3, in dark boxes under the letters P. M. in a dark block. Then there may be the P. M. spaces on the transfer, consisting of the numbers 4 to 12 in dark boxes under the letters P. M. in a dark block, followed by a box containing the inscription "1 - 4 A. M." When the latter set of punch spaces appear on the transfer, a P. M. quadrat also appears in a bottom corner of each attached coupon. The serial number of the transfer appears near the bottom of the main body, and in some cases also appears on each attached coupon. Endorsed on the main body is the following explanation of the use of this type of transfer:

    No transfer is issued except on payment of cash fare.
    This transfer is good to any line named upon the coupons at intersection of issuing line or from a line named upon one coupon to a line named on the other at point of intersection.
    Upon transfer from issuing line to a line named on either coupon at intersection of issuing line conductor will detach coupon upon which his line is named.
    The second coupon will be good to any line named thereon at intersection of line used upon first coupon and conductor will detach and accept same for fare.
    The remaining coupon is good to a line named thereon as designated and conductor will accept the same for fare.

        This patent is dated December 13, 1910. It is very frequently found combined with the Pope P. M. coupon, in which case both attached coupons are on the right, or only one such is used; and the hour spaces are numbered 1 to 12.

        Systems using the Smith patent type sometimes make use of the empty form of it without the contents, as in the case of the Yonkers forms in which all receiving conditions apply to the right-hand coupon, so that, in spite of the two attached coupons, no repeats are provided for.

        In the case of the transfers issued by the Third Avenue Railway system in Westchester County east of Yonkers, only the hour punch spaces and the "Notice to Passengers" remain of the Smith patent devices, even the part where the coupon should be not being in any way separated or detachable. Similarly, the free transfer forms, issued by the New York Railways Company and the New York and Harlem Railroad traction lines, are arranged as Smith forms with a single route coupon and a Pope P. M. coupon (what we may call the Smith-Pope type), but the route coupon is not intended to be detached, and, in most instances, is not detachable. In most of these cases, and in the case of the transfers of the Second Avenue Railroad Company (New York City), this coupon simply becomes a large box occupying the entire right end of the transfer and containing the receiving conditions.

        Route coupons in imitation or adaptation of the Smith patent type are to be found on some systems. The true Smith type is, as far as is known to us, not to be found in use outside of the immediate vicinity of New York City except on Chicago buses; and the two features peculiar to it and not copied in the adaptation forms, are the "Notice to Passengers" and the listing of receiving conditions on the coupons. Where a P. M. coupon is not used, the device of two different sets of surcharged punch spaces is generally used. In Kansas City, the A. M. and P. M. transfers are further distinguished by the fact that A. M. forms are printed in green, and P. M. forms in black in Los Angeles (issue of 1921) the route and date surcharges were in two different colors according to whether the transfer was A. M. or P. M. Probably only in the Kansas City case is the difference wide enough for the collector to consider the A. M. and P. M. transfers as separate forms.

        100. The Moran TypeThis is essentially a further development in the device of time coupons, and the device in that respect is sufficiently illustrated in the diagrams of Section 51. Moran transfers are nearly always vertical, as Ham and Smith transfers are regularly horizontal. There are some further peculiarities of the Moran type. One is a color distinction, as well as a difference in the number and labelling of the time coupons, between A. M. and P. M. forms.

        Another conspicuous feature of the Moran forms is the dating. The month is surcharged in red, and denoted by the first three letters. The date number is punched in punch spaces which are not boxed, and which are ranged around the margin of the main body of the transfer, across the top end, and down both sides, as follows:

        As to receiving conditions, the region from which the issuing car came is punched on most Moran forms, the punch spaces having above them, and directly underneath the one digit date numbers, the heading "NOT GOOD ON CAR GOING TOWARD POINT PUNCHED." There will be also, either in the box containing the serial number or in adjoining boxes, the form number and the words "Moran Patent 1922." Corresponding A. M. and P. M. transfers are given successive form numbers, that of the A. M. transfers being the smaller number.

        The receiving conditions, denoted by exceptions, are thus adapted to the universal transfer privilege. In certain forms where it is not desired to use this basis the receiving conditions are listed in a box on the front, and are endorsed in further detail. This is done in the case of the transfers of the Boston Elevated Railway system issued at elevated and subway stations.

         We have only found the Moran type in use on the system above named, and on the New York and Queens County Railway (issue of 1923). The Staten Island (N. Y. City) Rapid Transit Company uses a mode of dating which is essentially the Moran device, but, since their transfers have no other time limit than the date, and there is only one receiving route for each transfer, none of the other characteristic Moran devices appear.

        101. The Franklin Rapid TransferThis is the name of a certain type of transfer only used in a few instances, and now apparently obsolete. It differs 'from other transfer forms in being apparently blue-printed from an original drawing instead of printed in the usual way. All Franklin Rapid Transfers are white with blue lettering. The outstanding feature of the type is the denotation of receiving conditions by placing the transfer points and the receiving routes or destinations in parallel columns. In Section 84 we have fully discussed this feature, both in the case of Franklin Rapid Transfers and in other forms imitating this feature, which we called Franklinoid. The arrangement of the dating in the Franklin type is that of the diagram of Section 37, each item being separately boxed, and the months separated from the date numbers by a double line. To the left of the figure "31" is an "In-Out" punch, both "In" and "Out" being in striped spaces, the former with horizontal and the latter with vertical stripes. This dating is located near the top of the form. Below the parallel columns are the time limit punches, consisting of three parts: "Hour Time," being the heading given to a. row of punch spaces containing the numbers 1 to 12; "Minute Time," being the heading of a set of three punch spaces immediately below these and on the right side, containing respectively the numbers 15, 30, and 45; and an A. M.-P. M. punch occupying the left side of the row with the minute spaces, A. M. to the left, and P. M. in a dark space. Conditions of issuance are indicated by the name and, in some cases, the number of the issuing route printed on the transfer. The In-Out punch indicates the issuing direction. The attachment to the pad is by a line of circular holes instead of the usual rouletting; and a corresponding row of semicircular nicks at the other, or bottom end of the transfer. These transfers are vertical.

        102. Stedman TransfersThis classification refers to a peculiar type turned out by a certain transfer printer in Rochester, N. Y. The peculiarities of the typical Stedman transfer are the tabular time limit occupying the entire right-hand end of the transfer (see Diagram in Section 47), and the row-and-column combination of receiving route (or other receiving conditions) with the half-day that we have already discussed in detail. Both of these features have been copied in many transfer forms not printed by Stedman. Where the tabular time limit is not accompanied by the Stedmanic device for indicating the half-day, there is usually a Pope P. M. coupon.

        Usually the A. M. column is light and the P. M. column dark, but there are some exceptions. It is to be noted that this characteristic of Stedman forms makes it practically unnecessary to indicate the issuing line, and usually there is very little indication of that, if any. Some forms do specify the issuing line, and it has been considered sufficient, without listing receiving conditions in detail; here the Stedmanic device degenerates into a simple A.M.-P.M. punch, as with certain forms in Peekskill, N. Y., and Cleveland, Ohio.

        As we have already seen, this combination device has been used elsewhere, and imitations and adaptations have been made of it. One we can mention is the Stevens Time Limit, a type which is almost obsolete. Besides the standard Stedmanic combination of receiving route and half-day, the time limit is indicated by the dozen-dial device, the months by a tabular arrangement of punch spaces numbered 1 to 12 (four columns, three rows), and the date numbers by a similar arrangement of punch spaces numbered up to 31 (six rows, each row containing five spaces, but the top row containing six, and the first three rows separated from the last three). The Stevens form in our collection―from Derby, Conn.―contains the notice "LOOK ON OTHER SIDE," but the back of the transfer, which is presumably that "other side," is completely blank!

        There are many other types of transfers issued, of course, but none of them can well be called standard in any sense, so we will not treat of them in any great detail. We have already dealt with enough devices for indicating the various items to be shown on a transfer, to give some idea of what devices are likely to be met with. Inasmuch as we are not advertising any of these types, we state nothing as to their relative advantages or disadvantages, however. They are simply facts that should be known by one who is to make an intelligent collection of transfers.


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